• What is Epiphany (holiday)?

    5 ENE. 2023 · Epiphany (holiday) From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nativity scene with the adoration of the Magi Epiphany is a Christian holiday or festival on January 6. It celebrates the revelation of the Christ child to the Gentiles, when the Magi or wise men visited Bethlehem to see Jesus, by following a star. It is recorded in the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 2. Epiphany is included in the Christmas time. Epiphany (holiday). (2022, January 3). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18:20, October 24, 2022 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Epiphany_(holiday)&oldid=7941799.
  • What is New Year's Day?

    31 DIC. 2022 · New Year's Day From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search New Year's Day New Year's Day Fireworks in Mexico City at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Day, 2013 Observed byUsers of the Gregorian calendar SignificanceThe first day of the Gregorian year Date1 January CelebrationsMaking New Year's resolutions, church services, parades, sporting events, fireworks[1] Related toNew Year's Eve, Christmastide New Year's Day is a holiday in many countries. It was created to welcome the new year. In most countries, New Year Day is celebrated on 1 January. This holiday has been the most celebration with over 200 countries and territories in the world. The new year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next. Cultures that measure yearly calendars all have new year celebrations. Contents 1Modern new year celebrations 2Historical dates for the new year 2.1Early Christmas 3References 4Other websites Modern new year celebrations DateCelebration 1 JanuaryChristian New Year 14 JanuaryEastern Orthodox New Year 21 JanuaryChinese New Year (also known as the lunar year. It takes place every year on the first lunar month) 21 JanuaryVietnamese New Year (also known as the Tết Nguyên Đán) January to MarchTibetan New Year 14 MarchSikh / Nanakshahi New Year (also called Hola Mohalla) 20 or 21 MarchIranian New Year (also called Norouz. It is the day containing the exact moment of the vernal equinox) 19, 20, 21 or 22 MarchBahá'í New Year (also called Naw-Rúz. It is the day (starting at the previous sunset) in Tehran containing the exact moment of the vernal equinox) 1 AprilAssyrian New Year (also called Rish Nissanu) 13 or 14 AprilTamil New Year March or AprilTelugu New Year 13 AprilPunjabi New Year (also called Vaisakhi and celebrates the harvest) 13 to 15 AprilThai New Year (celebrated by throwing water) 13 or 14 AprilSri Lankan New Year (when the sun moves from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries)) 13 to 15 AprilCambodian New Year 14 or 15 AprilBengali New Year (also called Pohela Baisakh) October or NovemberGujarati New Year October or NovemberMarwari New Year Muharram 1Islamic New Year Historical dates for the new year Early Christmas In Christmas Style dating, the new year started on 25 December. This was used in Germany[2] and England until the thirteenth century, and in Spain from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. In Annunciation Style dating the new year started on 25 March, the feast of the Annunciation. This was used in many parts of Europe in the Middle Ages. The style was started by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525. Annunciation Style was used in England until 1 January 1752, and in Scotland until 1 January 1600, when the kingdom of Scotland changed to Circumcision Style. England, the kingdom of Ireland, and the Thirteen Colonies changed to Circumcision Style on 1 January, after the United Kingdom of Great Britain changed from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar on 3/14 September 1752. This happened because the Parliament of Great Britain made an act of parliament, the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750. References Mehra, Komal (2006). Festivals of the World. Sterling Publishers. p. 69. ISBN 9781845575748. In many European countries like Italy, Portugal and Netherlands, families start the new year by attending church services and then calling on friends and relatives. Italian children receive gifts or money on New Year's Day. People in the United States go to church, give parties and enjoy other forms of entertainment. "Saying Happy New Year In German". www.events2021.com. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2019. New Year's Day. (2022, February 22). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18:08, October 24, 2022 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Year%27s_Day&oldid=8047326.
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  • What is Hanukkah?

    17 DIC. 2022 · Hanukkah From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Members of the DC Minyan light Hanukkah candles 1:36 Hanukkah is a Jewish holiday which celebrates the victory of the Maccabees over the larger Syrian army. It also celebrates a miracle that happened during this time, where just a day's supply of oil allowed the menorah (Hanukkiah or Hanukkah Menorah) in the rededicated Temple in Jerusalem to remain lit for eight days. Therefore, Jewish people celebrate Hanukkah for eight days. Hanukkah begins on the 25th day of Kislev according to the Hebrew calendar, which on the Gregorian calendar is late November or December. For example, in 2013 it started on November 27. The Hebrew word hanukkah means rededication.[1] The hanukiah (or hanukkah menorah) is a candle holder, an important Hanukkah symbol. It has nine branches. Traditionally, one candle is separated from the rest, usually by being higher than the other eight. On the first night, only one candle is lit, on the right side of the hanukiah. On the second night, a second candle is added, and they are lit from left to right -- but the Hanukkiah is filled from right to left. This continues for all eight nights. The candles are never lit directly - instead, the higher candle, (called a shamash, meaning "attendant") is lit first, and then used to light the rest of the candles. While the candles are lit, blessings are said over them. Jewish children often play a game called dreidel. The dreidel is a four-sided spinning top, each side having a Hebrew letter. The four letters (nun, gimel, hey, and shin) stand for the Hebrew phrase, "Nes gadol haya shaam," meaning, "A great miracle happened there." In Israel, by contrast, the dreidel reads "Po" instead of "shaam," meaning "here." So in Israel the phrase is, "a great miracle happened here." Contents 1History of Hanukkah 2Dates 3References 4Other websites History of Hanukkah Approximately 2,200 years ago, there was a war between the Greeks and the Jews. The Greeks won and forced their culture on the Jews. A group of Jewish people called the Maccabees revolted and liberated Jerusalem. The Maccabees found their Temple defiled. They sought to rededicate it to God, as the Greeks had been worshipping Zeus there. As part of the rededication, they needed to relight the menorah, whose source of fuel was olive oil. According to the Talmud, the Jewish people only found a single jar of undefiled oil, and that oil was only enough to last a single day. The Jewish people took a leap of faith and relit the menorah. To their surprise, the menorah stayed lit for eight days, which was seven more days than they expected. The Jewish people attributed the surprising amount of time that the oil lasted to God (a miracle). Hanukkah is an eight-day celebration, and each day commemorates each day that the oil lasted. On each day, a branch of the nine-branch Hanukkah menorah is lit with the shamash ("helper" candle), which sits on the middle branch. Dates 2017: 12-20 December 2018: 2-10 December 2019: 22-30 December[2] 2020: 10-18 December 2021: 28 November-6 December[3] 2022: 18-26 December 2023: 7-15 December References Rosenblum, William F. (1978). "Hanukkah". World Book Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. World Book-Childcraft International. p. 56. "Chanukah - Hanukkah, the Jewish festival of rededication - חנוכה - Hebcal". Hebcal.com. Retrieved 2022-05-16. "Festivals Celebrated During Month of December". Retrieved 2022-05-16. Hanukkah. (2022, October 18). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18:02, October 24, 2022 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanukkah&oldid=8496934.
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  • What is Guru Nanak Dev?

    8 NOV. 2022 · Guru Nanak Dev From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Guru Nanak Dev OfficeThe first Sikh gurus Date of birth15 April 1469 Place of birthNankana Sahib, Punjab, Delhi Sultanate Date of death22 September 1539 (aged 70) Place of deathKartarpur, Punjab, Pakistan SuccessorGuru Angad Dev Known forCreator of Sikhism Guru Nanak Dev Sri Guru Nanak Ji (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the creator of Sikhism, and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His father's name is "Mehta kalu" and mother's name is "Mata tripta" .The last Guru said that there would be no more Gurus after him and Sikhs would be taught by the Sikh holy book, which is called Guru Granth Sahib Ji. The word "Guru" means "teacher".[1] His two son's are "Sri Chand" and "Lakshmi Das". Beside followers of Sikhism, Guru Nanak is considered holy by Punjabi Hindus and Sahajdhari Sindhis across the Indian subcontinent.[2] Because of his close connection with Hazrat Sheikh Farid-ud-din Ganj Shakar, the Punjabi Sufi saint, Nanak Dev is also considered by many Muslims to be a Sufi, or adherent of Sufic tenets. His main teaching to the world was written down to be "devotion of thought and having good actions as the first of our jobs". Life Guru Nanak Dev by Raja Ravi Varma.jpg Guru Nanak was born in Nankana Sahib, in Punjab. This is now part of Pakistan. When Guru Nanak was a child he refused the upanayana (holy thread) to initiate him into the Hindu religion. Later in his life he married Mata Sulakhani with whom he had two sons. They were called Sri Chand and Lakshmi Das. According to the Sikh religion, one day he was bathing in the river and god took him up to heaven. His family members were very worried as they had thought he died. After three days he returned with the message of god. He gave up his job to spread the message on how to be a good person. He died in Kartarpur. References "Guru Definition and Meaning". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 8 March 2022. Duggal, Kartar Singh (1988). Philosophy and Faith of Sikhism. Himalayan Institute Press. pp. xxii. ISBN 0-89389-109-6. Guru Nanak Dev. (2022, April 8). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:55, October 24, 2022 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guru_Nanak_Dev&oldid=8158868.
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  • What is Kartik Purnima?

    7 NOV. 2022 · Kartik Purnima From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kartika Purnima is a Hindu, Sikh and Jain cultural festival, celebrated on the Purnima (full moon) day or the fifteenth lunar day of Kartik (November–December) month. It is also known as Tripurari Purnima or Deva-Deepawali, the festival of lights of the gods. Karthika Deepam is a related festival celebrated in South India and Sri Lanka on a different date. ignificance Here, the five-headed Tripurantaka is seen pointing an arrow towards the Tripura (rightmost top corner) with the bow made of mount Meru, the serpent Vasuki is seen as its string. The four-headed god Brahma is seen. The moon and the Sun are depicted as the wheels of the chariot. Radha Krishna In Vaishnavism tradition, this day is considered significant and special for the worship of Radha and Krishna. It is believed that on this day, Radha Krishna performed Raslila with their Gopis. At Jagannath Temple, Puri and all other Radha Krishna temples, sacred vow is observed throughout the Karthik month and performances of Raslila are organized on the day of Kartik Purnima. According to other legend, Krishna worshipped Radha on this day.[3] Shiva 'Tripuri Purnima' or 'Tripurari Purnima' derives its name from Tripurari – the foe of the demon Tripurasura. In some legends of Kartik Purnima, the term is used to denote the three demon sons of Tārakāsura. Tripurari is an epithet of god Shiva. Shiva in his form as Tripurantaka ("Killer of Tripurasura") killed Tripurasura on this day. Tripurasura had conquered the whole world and defeated the gods and also created three cities in space, together called "Tripura". The killing of the demon(s) and destruction of his/their cities with a single arrow – by Shiva overjoyed the gods and they declared the day as a festival of illuminations. This day is also called "Dev-Diwali"—the Diwali of the gods.[4] Tulsi and Vishnu Kartik Purnima is also celebrated as the birth anniversary of Matsya, god Vishnu's fish-incarnation (avatar) and Vrinda, the personification of the Tulsi.[5] Kartikeya In Southern India, Kartik Purnima is also celebrated as the birthday of Lord Kartikeya, the god of war and son of Shiva.[3] This day is also dedicated to the pitrs, dead ancestors. Guru Nanak In Sikhism, Kartik Purnima is celebrated as the birthday of famous Sikh preceptor Guru Nanak.[3] Underhill believes that the origins of this festival may lie in ancient times, when a sacrifice called Shakamedhah was performed to attain victory over enemies.[6] The festival has even more significance when the day falls in the Nakshatra (lunar mansion) Krittika and is then called Maha Kartik. The nakshatra is Bharani, the results are stated to be special. If it is Rohini nakshatra, then the fruitful results are even more. Any philanthropic act on this day is supposed to bring benefits and blessings equal to the performing of ten yajnas.[7] Hindu rituals Kartik Purnima is closely associated with Prabodhini Ekadashi which marks the end of Chaturmas, a four-month period when Vishnu is believed to sleep. Prabodhini Ekadashi signifies the awakening of the god. Chaturmas penance ends on this day. Many fairs that begin on Prabodhini Ekadashi end on Kartik Purnima, Kartik Purnima usually being the most important day of the fair. Fairs that conclude on this day include Prabodhini Ekadashi celebrations at Pandharpur and Pushkar Fair. Kartik Purnima is also the last day to perform Tulsi Vivah ceremony that can be performed from Prabodhini Ekadashi.[citation needed] Also, it is believed that Vishnu, on this day, returns to his abode after completing his stay in Bali. Hence, the day is known as Deva-Diwali.[8] Pushkar Mela, 2006 In Pushkar, Rajasthan, the Pushkar Fair or Pushkar mela commences on Prabodhini Ekadashi and continues till Kartik Purnima, the latter being the most important. This fair is held in honour of god Brahma, whose temple stands at Pushkar. A ritual bath on Kartik Purnima in the Pushkar Lake is considered to lead one to salvation. It is believed circling the three Pushkars on Kartik Purnima is highly meritorious. Sadhus gather here and stay from Ekadashi to full moon day in caves. About 200,000 people and 25,000 camels assemble in Pushkar for the fair. Pushkar fair is Asia's largest camel fair.[9][10][11][12] A ritual bath at a tirtha (a sacred water body like a lake or river) at a pilgrimage centre is prescribed on Kartik Purnima. This holy bath is known as "Kartik snana".[13] A holy bath at Pushkar or in the Ganges river, especially at Varanasi is deemed as most auspicious. Kartik Purnima is the most popular day for bathing in the Ganges at Varanasi.[5] The devotees also take a bath in the evening during moonrise and offer worship by way of six prayers such as Shiva sambuti, Satait and so forth.[7] Annakuta, an offering of food to the deities, is held in temples.[citation needed] People who have taken vows on Ashvin full moon day, end them on Kartik Purnima. God Vishnu is also worshipped on this day. Any form of violence (hinsa or himsa) is prohibited on this day. This includes shaving, hair-cutting, cutting of trees, plucking of fruits and flowers, cutting of crops and even, sexual union.[13] Charity especially donation of cows, feeding of Brahmins, fasting are religious activities prescribed for Kartik Purnima.[5] Giving gift of gold is said to fulfill all desires of people.[7] Tripuri Purnima is only next to Maha Shivaratri, amongst festivals dedicated to Shiva worship.[6] To commemorate the killing of Tripurasura, images of Shiva are carried in procession. Temple complexes in southern India are lit up throughout the night. Deepmalas or towers of lights are illuminated in temples. People place 360 or 720 wicks in temples, to secure escape reaching hell after death.[citation needed] The 720 wicks symbolizes the 360 days and nights of the Hindu calendar.[5] In Varanasi, the ghats come alive with thousands of diyas (brightly lit earthen lamps).[5] People gift lamps to priests. The lamps are kept throughout the night in houses and Shiva temples. This day is also known as "Kartik Diparatna" - the jewel of lamps in Kartik.[6] Lights are also floated in miniature boats in rivers. Lights are placed under Tulsi, Sacred fig and Amla trees. The lights in the water and under trees are believed to help fishes, insects and birds who saw the light to attain salvation.[13] In Telugu households of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karthika Maasalu (month) is considered very auspicious. The Kartika month starts on the day of Deepawali. From that day till the end of the month, oil lamps are lit every day. On Karthika Pournami (full moon of Kartheeka month) oil lamp with 365 wicks, prepared at home, are lit in Lord Shiva temples. Apart from that, Kartika Puranam is read and fasting is observed till sunset, every day for the whole month. Swaminarayan Sampraday also celebrates this day with faith and fervor.[8] Boita Bandana People in Odisha celebrate Kartik Purnima by setting afloat miniature boita (boats) made from banana stem to remember the historical significance of the day. In Odisha, on Kartik Purnima, people celebrate Boita Bandana (Odia: ବୋଇତ ବନ୍ଦାଣ boita bandāṇa), in memory of ancient maritime trades via Kalinga[14] by heading for the nearest water body to set afloat miniature boats, originally made out of banana stem and coconut stick, lit with Deepak (lamps), fabric, betel leaves. Boita stands for boat or ship. The festival is a mass commemoration of the state's glorious maritime history when it was known as Kalinga and tradesmen and mariners known as sadhabas traveled on boitas to trade with distant island nations that share borders with the Bay of Bengal like Indonesia, Java, Sumatra and Bali. During Kartik Month the entire Hindu population of Odisha becomes strictly vegetarian. They observe the month with auspicious customs, continuing till the traditional ceremony of Panchuka which falls on the last five days of the month. [15] The Kartika month ends on Kartika Purnima. The day after Kartika Purnima is called Chhada Khai when the non-vegetarian people can again start their normal diet. By the way, the most fascinating part of Kartika Purnima in Odisha is the celebration of historic Boita Bandana to commemorate the Bali Jatra commenced by ancient Kalinga merchants and associated fleet to do trade in far South East Asia like Bali, Indonesia etc. Karthika Deepam Karthigai Deepam In Tamil Nadu, Karthika Deepam is celebrated where the Purnima corresponds to the Krittika nakshatra. People light rows of lamps on their balconies. In Tiruvannamalai, a ten-day annual festival is held to celebrate Karthika Deepam. Jainism Palitana Jain temples Kartik Purnima is an important religious day for Jains who celebrate it by visiting Palitana a Jain pilgrimage centre.[16] Thousands of Jain pilgrims flock to the foothills of Shatrunjay hills of Palitana taluka on the day of Kartik Purnima to undertake the auspicious yatra (journey). Also known as the Shri Shantrunjay Teerth Yatra, this walk is an important religious event in the life of a Jain devotee, who covers 216 km of rough mountainous terrain on foot to worship at the Lord Adinath temple atop the hill. Wikipedia contributors. (2022, October 23). Kartik Purnima. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:46, October 24, 2022, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kartik_Purnima&oldid=1117858118
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  • What is Chhath puja?

    29 OCT. 2022 · Chhath From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Chhath People gathered at a pond in Janakpur, Nepal to worship the god Sun and his consort Chhathi Maiya (2008) People gathered at a pond in Janakpur, Nepal to worship Surya, the sun god and his consort Chhathi Maiya (2008) Also called ChhaithChhath ParvaChhath PujaDala ChhathDala PujaSurya Shashthi Observed byBhojpuriyas, Bengalis, Maithils, Magahiyas and Nepalis TypeCultural, Historical, Religious SignificanceTo venerate Surya, the sun god and his consort Chhathi Maiya DateKartik Shukla Shashthi 2022 date 5 April to 8 April (Chaiti)[1] 28 Oct to 31 Oct (Katiki)[2] FrequencyAnnual Chhath is an ancient Hindu festival historically native to the Indian subcontinent,[3] more specifically, the Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand,[4][5] and the Nepalese provinces of Madhesh and Lumbini.[6][7][8][9] Prayers during Chhath puja are dedicated to the solar deity, Surya, to show gratitude and thankfulness for bestowing the bounties of life on earth and to request that certain wishes be granted.[10] Chhathi Maiya, the sixth form of Devi Prakriti and Lord Surya's sister is worshipped as the Goddess of the festival. It is celebrated six days after Deepavali, on the sixth day of the lunar month of Kartika (October–November) in the Hindu calendar Vikram Samvat.[11][12][13] The rituals are observed over four days.[14] They include holy bathing, fasting and abstaining from drinking water (vrata), standing in water, and offering prasad (prayer offerings) and arghya to the setting and rising sun.[15] Some devotees also perform a prostration march as they head for the river banks.[16] Environmentalists have claimed that the festival of Chhath is one of the most eco-friendly religious festivals in the World.[17][18] All devotees prepare similar prasada (religious food) and offerings.[19][20] Although the festival is observed most widely in the Terai region of Nepal and the Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, it is also prevalent in areas where the diaspora and migrants from those areas have a presence. It is celebrated in all northern regions and major north Indian urban centers like Delhi.[21][22][23] Hundreds of thousands of people celebrate it in Mumbai.[24] Contents 1Significance 2Description 2.1Nahaay Khaay (Day 1) 2.2Rasiaav-Roti/Kharna/Lohanda (Day 2) 2.3Sanjhka Aragh (Day 3) 2.4Bhorka Aragh (Day 4) 3Rituals and traditions 4History and associated legends 5References 6Further reading Significance Chhath puja is dedicated to the sun god Surya. The sun is visible to every being and is the basis of life of all creatures on earth.[25] Along with the Sun God, Chhathi Maiya is also worshipped on this day. According to Vedic astrology, Chhathi Maiya (or Chhathi Mata) protects the children from diseases and problems and gives them long lives and good health.[26] As per legends, Chhath Puja stems from the early Vedic period, where sages would fast for days and perform the puja with mantras from Rigveda. It is believed that Chhath Puja was also performed by Karna, the son of Lord Surya and the king of Anga Desh, which is the modern-day Bhagalpur in Bihar. According to another legend, Pandavas and Draupadi also performed the Puja to overcome obstacles in their lives and reclaim their lost kingdom.[26] For the people from Bihar and other close by areas, Chhath Puja is considered as Mahaparva.[27][28] Description Rani Pokhari, a 17th-century pond in Kathmandu decorated with lights at night for Chhath celebration Chhath celebration at Rani Pokhari, a 17th-century pond in Kathmandu (2015) Chhath Puja is a folk festival that lasts four days. It starts with Kartik Shukla Chaturthi and ends with Kartik Shukla Saptami. Chhath is celebrated twice in a year.[29] Chaiti Chhath - It is observed in the Chaitra month of Vikram Samvat.[30] Kartik Chhath - It is celebrated at a very large scale in the Kartika month of Vikram Samvat.[31] Nahaay Khaay (Day 1) This is the first day of Chhath Puja. The Parvaitin (transl. devotees, from Sanskrit parv, meaning "occasion" or "festival") must take a holy bath, after which the entire house, its surroundings and pathways to the Ghat are thoroughly cleaned. The Parvaitin usually cooks Sattvik Lauka Bhaat (Bottle Gourd and Bengal Gram Lentil preparation with Arva Rice Bhaat). This preparation is served to the deity in the afternoon as Bhog. This initiates the Parv and is the last meal of the Parvaitin during Chhath Puja. The food is then eaten to protect the mind from thoughts of vengeance.[32] Rasiaav-Roti/Kharna/Lohanda (Day 2) Kharna, also known as Rasiaav-Roti or Lohanda, is the second day of Chhath Puja.[33] On this day, the devotees are not allowed to drink even a single drop of water. In the evening, they eat gur ke kheer (Kheer made up of jaggery), called Rasiaav, together with Roti.[34] Sanjhka Aragh (Day 3) Where there is no river or pond, an indoor setup such as a tank or fountain are used. In certain places there are restrictions on using beaches for puja.[35] This day is spent preparing the prasad (offerings) at home, often consisting of a bamboo basket decorated with fruits, Thekua and rice laddus. On the eve of this day, the entire household accompany the devotee to a riverbank, pond, or other large body of water to make the Arghya offerings to the setting sun. The occasion can in many ways resemble a carnival. Besides the devotees and their friends and family, numerous participants and onlookers are all willing to help and receive the blessings of the worshipper. At the time of arghya, Gangajal water is offered to Sun God and the Chhathi Maiya is worshipped with the prasad. After the worship of Sun God, Chhath songs are sung in the night and the Vrat katha is read.[36] After returning home the devotees perform the ritual of kosi bharai together with the other family members. They take 5 to 7 sugarcanes and tie them together to form a mandap and beneath the shade of that mandap, 12 to 24 Diya lamps are burnt and thekua and other seasonal fruits are offered. The same ritual is repeated the next morning between 3 am and 4 am, and afterward the devotees offer arghya or other offerings to the rising sun. Bhorka Aragh (Day 4) Before sunrise on the last day of Chhath puja, the devotees have to go to the riverbank to offer an arghya to the rising sun. After this, the protection of the child and the peace and happiness of the entire family is sought from Chhatti Maiya. After worship, devotees drink water and eat a little prasad in order to break one's fast. This is called Paran or Parana. Rituals and traditions Chhath Celebration at Gangi River in Arrah Chhath Celebration at Gangi River in Arrah Chhath Puja Worship Material Chhath Puja Worship Material A woman praying during Chhath A woman praying during Chhath Women waiting with Prasada for offerings Women waiting with Prasada for offerings View of decorated Ghadiarwa pond on the occasion of Chhath festival, Birgunj, Nepal View of decorated Ghadiarwa pond on the occasion of Chhath festival, Birgunj, Nepal The main worshippers, called parvaitin (from Sanskrit parv, meaning "occasion" or "festival"), are usually women. However, many men also observe this festival as Chhath is not a gender-specific festival.[37] The parvaitin pray for the well-being of their family, and for the prosperity of their children. In some communities, once a family member starts performing Chhath Puja, they are duty-bound to perform it every year and to pass it on to the following generations. The festival is skipped only if there is a death in the family that year. If the person stops performing the ritual on any particular year, it stops permanently and one cannot resume it. In other communities, this is not mandatory. The prasad offerings include Thekua, Khajuria, Tikri, Kasar (and fruits (mainly sugar canes, sweet lime, coconut, banana and many seasonal fruits) offered in small bamboo baskets.[38] The food is strictly vegetarian and is cooked without salt, onions or garlic. Emphasis is put on maintaining the purity of the food.[39] History and associated legends Deo Surya Mandir in Deo, Aurangabad, Bihar, India The Chhathi Maiya is worshipped on the Chhath festival, which is also mentioned in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana. In Munger region, the festival is known for its association with Sita Manpatthar (Sita Charan; lit. Sita's footsteps). Sitacharan temple, situated on a boulder in the middle of the Ganges in Munger, is the main center of public faith regarding Chhath festival. It is believed that goddess Sita performed Chhath festival in Munger. It was only after this event that Chhath festival started. That is why Chhath Mahaparva is celebrated with great pomp in Munger and Begusarai.[40] According to some other legend, King Priyavrat, son of First Manu Swayambhu, was very sad because he had no children. Maharishi Kashyap asked him to do a yajna. According to Maharishis orders, he performed a yajna for a son. After this, Queen Malini gave birth to a son, but unfortunately the baby was born dead. The king and his family were very sad because of this. Then Mata Shashthi revealed herself in the sky. When the king prayed to her, she spoke, saying: "I am Chhathi Maiya the Sixth form of Devi Parvati. I protect all the children of the world and give the blessings of children to all childless parents." After this, the Goddess blessed the lifeless child with her hands, so that he came to life. The king was very thankful for the grace of the Goddess and he worshipped the goddess Shashthi Devi. It is believed that after this puja, this festival became a worldwide celebration. Wikipedia contributors. (2022, October 24). Chhath. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:25, October 24, 2022, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chhath&oldid=1117905892
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  • Bhai Dooj

    25 OCT. 2022 · Bhai Dooj From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Bhai Dooj Bhai tika Celebration of Bhaitika in Panchkhal, Nepal Also calledBhai Tika, Bhau Beej, Bhai Phonta, Bhratri Dwitiya Observed byHindus TypeReligious Datemāsa (amānta) / māsa (purnimānta), pakṣa, tithi 2021 dateNovember 6 [1] 2022 date27 October FrequencyAnnual Explanatory note Hindu festival dates vte Bhai Dooj, Bhaubeej, Bhai Tika, Bhai Phonta or Bhratri Dwitiya is a festival celebrated by Hindus on the second lunar day of Shukla Paksha (bright fortnight) in the Vikram Samvat Hindu calendar or of Shalivahan Shaka calendar month of Kartika. It is celebrated during the Diwali or Tihar festival and Holi festival. The celebrations of this day are similar to the festival of Raksha Bandhan. On this day, brothers give gifts to their sisters. In the southern part of India, the day is celebrated as Yama Dwitiya.[2] In the Kayastha community, two Bhai Doojs are celebrated. The more famous one comes on the second day after Diwali. But the lesser-known one is celebrated a day or two after Diwali. In Haryana and Uttar Pradesh a ritual also followed, a dry coconut (named gola in regional language) with klewa tied along its width for worshipping is also used at the time of doing aarti of a brother.[3]In Bengal the day is celebrated as Bhai Phota, which comes one day after Kali Puja. Contents 1Regional names 2The Ceremony 3The celebration 3.1Bhai Phonta 3.2Bhai Bij 3.3Bhaitika in Nepal 4Rabindranath Tagore and the Partition of Bengal 5References Regional names The festival is known as: Bhai Dooj (Hindi: भाई दूज) in entire Northern part of India, observed during the Diwali festival. This is also the second day of the Vikrami Samvat New Year, the calendar followed in Northern India (including Kashmir), which starts from the lunar month of Kārtika. In Awadh and Purvanchal regions of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, it is also known as Bhaiya Dooj. It is widely celebrated by Maithils in Bihar as Bhardutiya and people from various other ethnic groups. The first day of this New Year is observed as Govardhan Pūja.[4] Bhai Teeka (Nepali: भाइटीका) in Nepal, where it is the most important festival after Dashain (Vijaya Dashmi / Dussehra). Observed on the fifth day of Tihar festival, it is widely celebrated by the people of various ethnic groups in Nepal.[5] The sisters put a vertical Tika of seven colours known as Saptarangi Tika in their brother's forehead. Bhai Phonta (Bengali: ভাই ফোঁটা) in Bengal and it takes place every year on the second day after Kali Puja. It is mainly observed in West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh. Bhai Jiuntia (Odia: ଭାଇ ଜିଉନ୍ତିଆ) only in western Odisha. Bhau Beej, or Bhav Bij (Marathi: भाऊ बीज) or Bhai Beej amongst the Marathi, Gujarati and Konkani-speaking communities in the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat and Karnataka. Another name for the day is Yamadwitheya or Yamadvitiya, after a legendary meeting between Yama the god of Death and his sister Yamuna (the famous river) on Dwitheya (the second day after new moon). Other names include Bhatru Dviteeya, or Bhatri Ditya or Bhaghini Hastha Bhojanamu in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. According to a popular legend in Hindu mythology, after slaying the evil demon Narakasura, Lord Krishna visited his sister Subhadra who gave him a warm welcome with sweets and flowers. She also affectionately applied tilaka on Krishna's forehead. Some believe this to be the origin of the festival. The Ceremony Tilak of seven colors used in Nepalese celebration On the day of the festival, sisters invite their brothers for a sumptuous meal often including their favourite dishes/sweets. The procedure may be different in Bihar and central India. The whole ceremony signifies the duty of a brother to protect his sister, as well as a sister's blessings for her brother.[6] Carrying forward the ceremony in traditional style, sisters perform arti for their brother and apply a red tika on the brother's forehead. This tika ceremony on the occasion of Bhai Bij signifies the sister's sincerest prayers for the long and happy life of her brother and treat them with gifts. In return, elder brothers bless their sisters and may treat them also with gifts or cash. As it is customary in Haryana and Maharashtra to celebrate the auspicious occasion of Bhau-beej, women who do not have a brother worship the moon Chandra instead. They apply mehendi on girls as their tradition. The sister whose brother lives far away from her and can not go to her house, sends her sincerest prayers for the long and happy life of her brother through the moon god. She performs aarti for the moon. This is the reason why children of Hindu parents affectionately call the moon Chandamama (Chanda means moon and mama means mother's brother). The celebration Bhai Phonta Bhai Phonta at a Bengali household in West Bengal, India. Bhai Phonta in West Bengal is celebrated with much splendour. The ceremony is marked with many rituals along with a grand feast arranged for the brothers. It is necessary that, both brother and sister are more than 5 years of age.[7] Bhai Bij The festival of Bhai Bij is popular in Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa and is celebrated with great fervour and gaiety. Brothers and sisters look forward to the occasion with immense enthusiasm. To add charm to the occasion, Bhai Bij gifts are given to brothers from sisters as a token of love and appreciation.[8] Bhav Bij is a time for family reunions as all brothers and sisters in the family get together. Close relatives and friends are also invited to celebrate the Bhav Bij in many families. Special dishes for the festival include the Maharashtra sweet called basundi poori or kheerni poori.[9] On this occasion, brothers and sisters exchange gifts. And both of them pray for their long and happy life.[10] Bhaitika in Nepal A boy, wearing the tika, made for special occasion of tihar in Nepal Bhaitika in Nepal is also known as Bhai Tihar meaning Tihar (festival) of brothers. On this day, sisters pray to Yamraj for a long life and prosperity for their brothers.[11] The ritual involves sisters marking the forehead of their brothers with a seven coloured long tika. The rest of the ritual is similar to that performed by Hindus elsewhere. A special garland of the Gomphrena globosa flower is made by the sister as an offering to their brothers. Rabindranath Tagore and the Partition of Bengal Rachel Fell McDermott, Professor of Asian Studies at Columbia University, describes Rabindranath Tagore's rakhi-bandhan ceremonies, inspired by the Bhai Dooj ritual, which were organized to protest the 1905 Partition of Bengal In 1905 Rabindranath Tagore extended the symbolism of Brother's Second, a ritual of bonding between brothers and sisters that is celebrated right after the Pujas have concluded, to evoke friendship between Hindus and Muslims: members of both communities would tie red threads of brotherhood on each others' wrists. All throughout the partition period, these rakhi-bandhan ceremonies were regularly announced in the Bengali and English papers. In addition, some landlords, even the British Indian Association, saw that the boycott and emphasis upon swadeshi items were disturbing peace with rural Muslims in their areas, and withdrew their support.[12] References "Nepali Calendar 2078 Kartik | Hamro Nepali Patro". english.hamropatro.com. Retrieved 2021-07-27. "Bhai Dooj 2020 date, time and significance". The Times of India. November 15, 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-15. "भाई-बहन के परस्पर प्रेम और स्नेह का प्रतीक भाई दूज". Dainik Jagran (in Hindi). Retrieved 2020-11-15. "Bhai Dooj 2018 Date in India: When is Bhai Dooj in 2018". The Indian Express. 2018-11-09. Retrieved 2020-11-16. "Happy Bhai Dooj 2020: Wishes, greetings, messages, quotes, SMS, WhatsApp and Facebook status to share on 'Bhai Tika'". Jagran English. 2020-11-15. Retrieved 2020-11-18. "Bhai Dooj 2020: This Bhai Dooj, Celebrate With These Amazing Gifts For Your Brother Or Sister". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2020-11-16. "Bhai Dooj 2020: Date, time and significance of festival; all you need to know - India News , Firstpost". Firstpost. 2020-11-15. Retrieved 2020-11-15. "Bhai Dooj 2020: Know all about the history, significance and celebrations of Yama Dwitiya here". Hindustan Times. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2021-11-05. "Bhai Dooj Puja 2019: How to do puja on Bhai Dooj, Puja vidhi and Timings - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2020-11-15. "How to Celebrate Bhai Dooj with Your Brother - Ferns N Petals". Ferns N Petals. Retrieved 2021-10-26. "Bhai-Tika / Bhai-Teeka". diwalifestival.org. Society for the Confluence of Festivals in India. Retrieved 5 November 2013. McDermott, Rachel Fell (2011), Revelry, Rivalry, and Longing for the Goddesses of Bengal: The Fortunes of Hindu Festivals, Columbia University Press, p. 63, ISBN 978-0-231-52787-3 Wikipedia contributors. (2022, October 20). Bhai Dooj. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17:07, October 24, 2022, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bhai_Dooj&oldid=1117281943
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  • What is Diwali?

    24 OCT. 2022 · Diwali From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Deepawali / Dipavali /Deepavali Rangoli decorations, made using coloured powder, are popular during Diwali Observed byHindus, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists[1] TypeIndian, Cultural, Seasonal BeginsDhanteras, 2 days before Diwali EndsBhai Dooj, 2 days after Diwali DateKartik Amavasya (Varies per Hindu Lunisolar calendar) 2021 date4 November (Thursday) 2022 date25 October (Tuesday) 2023 date2 November (Sunday) CelebrationsDiya and lighting, home decoration, shopping, fireworks, puja (prayers), gifts, performing religious rituals, feast and sweets Related toKali Puja, Diwali (Jainism), Bandi Chhor Divas Diwali (also: Deepawali) is one of India's biggest festivals. The word 'Deepawali' means rows of lighted lamps. It is a Festival of Lights and Hindus celebrate it with joy. During this festival, people light up their houses and shops with Diyas (small cup-shaped oil lamp made of baked clay). They worship the Lord Ganesha for welfare and prosperity and Goddess Lakshmi for wealth and wisdom. This festival is celebrated in the Hindu month of Kartikamasam which falls sometime during October or November. It is celebrated to mark the return of Lord Rama after 14 years of exile and his victory over the Demon Ravana. In many parts of India, Deepawali is celebrated for five consecutive days. Hindus regard it as a celebration of life and use the occasion to strengthen relationships. In some parts of India, it marks the beginning of a new year. People clean and decorate their house before the festival. They do colorful rangoli art works on floors. Deepawali is celebrated and is a public holiday in countries such as Nepal, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago. It is also a school holiday in many states of the United States with a large Hindu population. President George W. Bush had the first celebration of the holiday in the White House. A building decorated with lights during Diwali Hindus light up their homes and shops to welcome the Goddess Lakshmi and to give them good luck for the year ahead. A few days before Ravtegh, which is the day before Deepavali, houses, buildings, shops and temples are thoroughly cleaned, whitewashed and decorated with pictures, toys and flowers. On the day of Deepawali, people put on their best clothes and exchange greetings, gifts and sweets with their friends and family. At night, buildings are illuminated with earthen lamps, candle-sticks and electric bulbs. Sweets and toy shop are decorated to attract the passers-by. The bazaars and streets are overcrowded. People buy sweets for their own families and also send them as presents to their friends and relatives. The Goddess Lakshmi is also worshiped in the form of earthen images, silver rupee. Hindus believe that on this day, Lakshmi only enters houses which are neat and tidy. People offer prayers for their own health, wealth and prosperity. They leave the light on in buildings believing that Lakshmi will not have difficulty in finding her way in. Diwali is one of the most important festival of the Hindus.It is also known as deepawali or the festival of lights. It comes on Amavasya day in the month of kartik. Both rich and poor wear new clothes on this day. Lots of sweets are made. People light diyas and burn crackers. They ex- change greetings and sweets. Goddess Laxmi is worshipped on this day. Diwali. (2022, October 24). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:54, October 24, 2022 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diwali&oldid=8508566.
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  • What is Cheondoism?

    24 OCT. 2022 · Cheondoism From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cheondoism (Korean Cheondogyo; hanja 天道教; hangul 천도교; literally "Religion of the Heavenly Way") is Korean traditional religion which began during the last year of Joseon Dynasty. It was found in 1860 by Choe Je-U, the first religious sect leader of Cheondoism. At first, he named this religion Donghak, or Eastern Learning in opposition to Western Learning. In 1905, the name was change to Cheondogyo by the third leader, Son Byeong-Hui. In period of Japanese occupation, it made an effort to lead Korea's Independence Movement against Japanese colonial rule and expand it's congregation. Today, Cheondoism exerts less strong influence than before. Religious thought Cheondoism is a monotheistic religion and members believe a god called 'Hanul'. God is both transcendent and immanent in Heaven, Earth, and Man. It is not only the notion of God, but also view of human, moral, history are distinctive. When one dies, one does not go to some other-dimensional heaven, but returns to the One Being. The fundamental doctrine of the religion is that all human beings are equal because all people serve the god in their mind when born, so believers desperately oppose the hierarchy. And depending on equality for all, it insisted that children should be respected. History Cheondoism weakened by government suppression, but from the effort of second leader Si Hyung Choi. it recovered and in 1870, the number of believers extended for thousands. In 1880s, congregation was expanded to the entire Korean peninsula, and in 1890s, the religion led social movement of semi-feudalism and anti-foreign influence and this became Donghak Movement. In 1910s, it stirred up a revolution for liberation of the oppressed nation from Japanese imperialist rule. Other websites www.chondogyo.or.kr Cheondoism. (2022, September 17). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:24, October 14, 2022 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cheondoism&oldid=8446529.
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  • What is the Epic of Gilgamesh?

    24 OCT. 2022 · pic of Gilgamesh From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh in Akkadian The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia. It is one of the earliest works of literary fiction known. The most complete version that exists today was preserved on twelve clay tablets in the library collection of the 7th century BC Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. A series of Sumerian legends and poems about the mythological hero-king Gilgamesh were probably gathered into a longer Akkadian poem some time before the 7th century BC. The essential story is about the relationship between Gilgamesh, a king who has become distracted and disheartened by his rule, and a friend, Enkidu, who is half-wild and who undertakes dangerous quests with Gilgamesh. Much of the epic focuses on Gilgamesh's thoughts of loss following Enkidu's death. It is often credited as being one of the first literary works with emphasis on immortality. The epic is widely read in translation, and the hero, Gilgamesh, has become an icon of popular culture. Contents 1History 2Bibliography 2.1Editions 2.2Other 3Other websites History Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk, an ancient city of Sumer. His supposed historical reign is believed to lie within the period 2700 to 2500 BC, 200–400 years before the earliest known written stories. His father was the third king, Lugalbanda. The Epic of Gilgamesh was about him. Bibliography Editions George, Andrew R. (2003). The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts. England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814922-0. George, Andrew R (1999). The Epic of Gilgamesh. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044919-1. Foster, Benjamin R (2001). The Epic of Gilgamesh. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-97516-9. Kovacs, Maureen Gallery (1985). The Epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. ISBN 0-8047-1711-7. Glossary, Appendices, Appendix (Chapter XII=Tablet XII). A line-by-line translation (Chapters I-XI). Jackson, Danny (1997). The Epic of Gilgamesh. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. ISBN 0-86516-352-9. Mason, Herbert (1970). Gilgamesh: A Verse Narrative. Boston: Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-618-27564-9. Mitchell, Stephen (2004). Gilgamesh: A New English Version. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-6164-X. Sandars, N. K. (2006). The Epic of Gilgamesh (Penguin Epics). ISBN 0-14-102628-6 - re-print of the Penguin Classic translation (in prose) by N. K. Sandars 1960 (ISBN 0-14-044100-X) without the introduction. Parpola, Simo; Mikko Luuko; Kalle Fabritius (1997). The Standard Babylonian, Epic of Gilgamesh. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. ISBN 951-45-7760-4. (Volume 1) in the original Akkadian cuneiform and transliteration; commentary and glossary are in English Ferry, David (1993). Gilgamesh: A New Rendering in English Verse. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0374523835. Other Damrosch, David (2007) The Buried Book: The Loss and Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh. Henry Holt and Co, ISBN 0-8050-8029-5 Jacobsen, Thorkild (1976) The Treasures of Darkness, A History of Mesopotamian Religion, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-01844-4 West, Martin (1997) The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth, New York: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-815042-3 Other websites Translations for several legends of Gilgamesh in the Sumerian language can be found in Black, J.A., Cunningham, G., Fluckiger-Hawker, E, Robson, E., and Zólyomi, G., The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/ Archived 2008-12-10 at the Wayback Machine), Oxford 1998-. Babylonian (Akkadian) texts: ETCSL Gilgamesh and Huwawa Archived 2006-12-30 at the Wayback Machine, version A - (the adventure of the cedar forest) Gilgamesh and Huwawa Archived 2007-06-29 at the Wayback Machine, version B Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven Archived 2002-08-07 at the Wayback Machine Gilgamesh and Aga Archived 2008-05-05 at the Wayback Machine Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the nether world Archived 2002-08-25 at the Wayback Machine The death of Gilgamesh Archived 2006-12-30 at the Wayback Machine The Project Gutenberg eBook, An Old Babylonian Version of the Gilgamesh Epic, by Anonymous, Edited by Morris Jastrow, Translated by Albert T. Clay Epic of Gilgamesh, summary by M. McGoodwin Gilgamesh Archived 2005-12-30 at the Wayback Machine by Richard Hooker (wsu.edu) The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography (theosophy-nw.org) Tablets Tablet XI (The Flood Chapter) Flood Comparison of equivalent lines in six ancient versions of the flood story Archived 2006-08-29 at the Wayback Machine (noahs-ark-flood.com) Comparison of The Epic of Gilgamesh to the Genesis flood (religioustolerance.org) Comparison of the Flood in Genesis to the Epic of Gilgamesh and related literature (Christian-thinktank.com) Epic of Gilgamesh. (2022, April 5). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:10, October 14, 2022 from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Epic_of_Gilgamesh&oldid=8152709.
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