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From The Archives: A Beginners Guide To DNA

From The Archives: A Beginners Guide To DNA
25 de may. de 2024 · 16m 21s

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a molecule found in the cells of all living organisms. It carries genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth, and reproduction of these organisms. DNA is...

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DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a molecule found in the cells of all living organisms. It carries genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth, and reproduction of these organisms. DNA is composed of four chemical bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T), which are arranged in a double helix structure.Here's a summary of what DNA is and how it's used in investigations:1. DNA Structure: DNA is made up of two long chains (strands) of nucleotides twisted into a double helix. Each nucleotide consists of a phosphate group, a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), and one of the four nitrogenous bases (A, C, G, or T). The sequence of these bases along the DNA strand forms the genetic code.2. Genetic Information: DNA contains the genetic information necessary for an organism's traits and characteristics. The specific sequence of bases in DNA encodes the instructions for building proteins, which are essential for various biological functions.3. DNA Replication: Before a cell divides, its DNA is copied through a process called replication, ensuring that each new cell receives an identical set of genetic instructions. This process is crucial for growth, development, and repair in living organisms.4. DNA in Investigations: DNA plays a pivotal role in forensic investigations and various other scientific fields:
  • Forensic DNA Analysis: In criminal investigations, DNA from crime scenes (such as blood, hair, or saliva) can be compared to DNA from suspects. This process, known as DNA profiling or DNA fingerprinting, helps identify suspects, establish paternity, and exonerate the innocent.
  • Identification: DNA is used for identifying individuals in disaster victim identification, missing persons cases, and in immigration procedures.
  • Genealogy: DNA testing is used in genealogy research to trace ancestry and discover family connections.
  • Medical Diagnostics: DNA analysis aids in diagnosing genetic disorders, identifying disease risk factors, and personalizing medical treatments.
  • Biological Research: DNA is a fundamental tool in biological research, helping scientists understand genetics, evolution, and diseases.
5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): PCR is a technique used to amplify (make copies of) specific DNA segments, even from small or degraded samples. This is crucial in forensic DNA analysis where limited or damaged DNA is often encountered.6. DNA Sequencing: DNA sequencing methods determine the exact order of bases in a DNA strand. This is important for understanding genetic variations, mutations, and the genetic basis of diseases.



Considering how often we refer to DNA and DNA testing, I thought that it was time for us to have a bit of a guide as to what DNA testing is and how it is used by investigators to help them solve crimes.


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to contact me:

bobbycapucci@protonmail.com
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